张文宏教授支招防控新冠病毒


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张文宏教授

支招防控 新冠病毒


Prevention and control solutions

2019-nCoV

Editor-in-Chief: Zhang Wenhong



申明Statement


本文中文内容以及图片版权由上海科学技术出版社所有。英文内容由施璐德亚洲有限公司组织翻译,仅供公司内部使用,不用于商业用途,不得用于打印出版。

Copyright by Shanghai Scientific & Technical Publishers. English version prepared by CNOOD ASIA LIMITED. For internal reference only. Not for any publication or business purpose.



一分钟了解新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎

Learn about COVID-19 in one minute



病毒概况 

Virus overview


新型冠状病毒(简称新冠病毒),世界卫生组织(WHO)命名为2019-nCoV,其中n代表novel(新的),CoV是冠状病毒coronavirus的缩写。它与造成严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS,俗称“非典”)的病原体一样,都属于冠状病毒,但两者并不相同。

Novel coronavirus, named by the World Health Organization (WHO) as 2019-nCoV, where n stands for novel (new), and CoV is an abbreviation for coronavirus. It belongs to the same coronavirus family as the pathogen that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but the two are not the same.


传染源
Source of infection


目前所见的传染源主要是新型冠状病毒感染的患者。无症状感染者也可能成为传染源。
The sources of infection seen so far are mainly patients with 2019-nCoV infections. Asymptomatic 2019-nCoV carriers can also be a source of infection. 


传播途径
Transmission routes


可以人传人。经呼吸道飞沫和接触传播是主要的传播途径。气溶胶和消化道等传播途径尚待明确。
It can be transmitted from person to person. Respiratory droplets and contact transmission are the main routes of transmission. Transmission routes such as aerosol and digestive tract are yet to be clarified.


易感人群
Susceptible population


人群普遍易感。老年人及有慢性基础疾病者感染后病情较重,儿童及婴幼儿也有发病。
The crowd is generally susceptible. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases suffer from more severe conditions after infection. Children and infants are occasionally affected.


潜伏期
Incubation period


潜伏期1~14天,多为3~7天。
The incubation period is 1~14 days, mostly 3~7 days.


症状
Symptoms


以发热、乏力、干咳为主要表现。少数患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹泻等症状。部分患者仅表现为低热、轻微乏力等。重症患者多在感染1周后出现呼吸困难。
Main symptoms are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and diarrhea. Some patients only show low fever and mild fatigue. Severe patients often have difficulty breathing 1 week after infection.

治疗
Treatment


有效药物正在研发中,目前还没有确认有效的抗病毒方法。
Effective drugs are still being developed, and no effective antiviral method has been identified so far.


预后
Prognosis


多数患者预后良好,少数患者病情危重。老年人和有基础疾病的患者预后较差。儿童患者症状相对较轻。
The prognosis is good for most patients. A few patients are critically ill. The prognosis of the elderly and patients with underlying diseases is poor. Symptoms of children are relatively mild.


个人防护关键词

Personal protection Key words



居家隔离的目的和重要意义是什么?

What is the purpose and significance of home quarantine?


居家隔离的目的在于通过物理上的隔绝,阻止患者在社会上滞留与传播,避免形成二代和三代病例。
The purpose of home quarantine is to prevent patients from staying and spreading virus in society through physical isolation, and to prevent the formation of second-generation and third-generation cases.

当存在大量无症状的密切接触者或潜在病人的时候,居家隔离应该作为一个重要的选择,可以解决治疗机构不能解决的问题。若出现任何症状,则须去医院就诊。居家自行隔离期间,可以借刷朋友圈、煲剧、读书、品茶等休闲活动,让新型冠状病毒自行失去传播能力而灰飞烟灭。
When there are a large number of asymptomatic close contacts or potential patients, home quarantine should be an important option to solve problems that cannot be solved by the treatment institutions. Go to the hospital If any symptoms occur. During home quarantine, you may spend the leisure time viewing circle of friends, cooking, reading, and tasting tea, etc. to cut off the transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and let them die out.


哪些人需要居家隔离?
Who are required to practice home quarantine?


14天内有武汉及周边地区或其他本地病例持续传播地区旅行史或居住史的人员。
Those who are in or have recently visited (past 14 days) Wuhan and surrounding areas or local places where COVID-19 is spreading.  


14天内曾与疑似病例、确诊病例有密切接触史的人员。
Those who have had close contact with suspected and confirmed cases within 14 days 


以上人员如果未出现新型冠状病毒感染可疑症状,则应居家隔离;如果出现可疑症状,应立即上报并就医。
The above mentioned people are required to undergo home quarantine if there is no suspicious symptom of 2019-nCoV infection; and they are required to report to relevant departments immediately and seek medical treatment if suspicious symptoms appear.


如何居家隔离?
How to practice home quarantine?


隔离环境
Quarantine environment


●隔离者应居住在通风良好的单人房间;确保共用区域(厨房、浴室等)通风良好(开窗)。
People in quarantine should live in well-ventilated single rooms; ensure that common areas (kitchens, and bathrooms, etc.) are well-ventilated (windows open).

 ●家庭成员应住在不同房间,若条件不允许,应与患者保持1米以上距离。
Family members should live in different rooms. Keep a distance of more than 1 meter from the patient, if conditions do not permit.  

●缩小隔离者活动范围,尽量减少隔离者与家庭成员共用一个区域,尤其避免一起用餐。
Narrow down the scope of activities of the quarantined person, minimize the sharing of an area between the quarantined person and other family members, and especially avoid dining together.

 ●不共用牙刷、毛巾、餐具、厕所、被服等。
Do not share toothbrushes, towels, tableware, toilets, and quilts, etc. 

●拒绝一切探访。
Refuse all visits. 


照护
Care


●固定一名身体健康且无慢性病者进行护理。
Caregivers should be fixed and be in good health and free of chronic diseases. 

●看护人员与隔离者共处一室时,应佩戴口罩。
Caregivers should wear masks when they are in the same room as the quarantined person.

●与隔离者有任何直接接触或进入隔离区后,应做好手卫生(备餐前、餐前、便后、可见污物时)。如果双手无明显污物,可用含酒精的免洗液清洁;如果双手有明显污物,则用肥皂和清水清洗。
After having any direct contact with the quarantined people or entering the quarantine area, hand hygiene should be done (before meal preparation, before meals, after using the bathroom, when dirt is visible). If there is no obvious dirt on your hands, you can use alcohol-free lotion to clean them; if there is obvious dirt on your hands, wash them with soap and water.


消毒
Disinfection


●每天用含氯消毒剂清洁卧室家具、卫生间台面。
Clean bedroom furniture and bathroom countertop daily with chlorine-containing disinfectant. 

●用60~90℃热水及普通家用洗衣液清洗病人衣物及床上用品,避免污染被服与清洁被服接触。
Wash patient's clothing and bedding with hot water at 60~90°C and ordinary household laundry detergent, avoid putting contaminated clothes and clean clothes together.  ●以上操作应佩戴一次性手套进行,操作前后进行手部清洗。
The above operations should be performed in disposable gloves. Wash hands before and after the operations.

分泌物和排泄物
Secretions and excreta
 


●呼吸道分泌物:所有人咳嗽、打喷嚏时,需戴医用口罩,或用纸巾及衣袖掩住,咳嗽和打喷嚏后立即清洁双手。将捂住口鼻的纸巾或毛巾直接丢弃,或使用后正确清洗(如用普通肥皂/洗涤剂及清水清洗)。
Respiratory secretions: wear medical masks or cover your mouth and nose with tissue or your bent elbow/sleeves when you cough or sneeze. Clean your hands immediately after coughing and sneezing. Dispose of tissues or towels covered your nose and mouth, or wash them properly after use (such as washing with ordinary soap/detergent and water).  

●排泄物:接触隔离者口腔、呼吸道分泌物、尿液、粪便时,需佩戴一次性手套。对于隔离者的排泄物,应密封后丢弃至“有害垃圾”桶。冲厕所马桶时应盖上马桶盖。
Excrement: wear disposable gloves when touching oral secretion, respiratory secretion, urine or feces of the people in quarantine. The excreta of the quarantined people should be sealed and discarded into "hazardous waste" bins. Cover the toilet when flushing it.  

●污染物:应将手套、纸巾、口罩等污染物集中放置于患者房间,标记后单独丢弃。
Contaminants: contaminants such as gloves, paper towels and masks should be placed in patient's room and discarded separately after marking.  

●餐具:对于隔离者使用的餐具,使用后应用洗涤剂和清水清洗,不需丢弃。
Tableware: wash the tableware used by the quarantined people with detergent and water. No need to discard them. 


解除隔离标准

Criteria to release quarantine


●如果未出现相关症状,隔离至末次接触患者或离开流行地区的第14天。
Practice a 14-day quarantine since last contact with patients or departure from the endemic area if no symptom occur. 

●如果出现相关症状,及时至发热门诊就诊。
Seek medical care at a fever clinic in time in case of relevant symptoms.

什么时候需要戴口罩?
When do I need to wear a mask?


戴口罩 疫情期间,与人碰面、到公共场所、进入人员密集或密闭场所、乘坐公共交通工具等时,均建议戴口罩。
Wearing a mask During the epidemic, it is recommended to wear a mask when meeting people, going to public places, entering crowded or closed places, and taking public transportation, etc.

不戴口罩 独处或在空旷场所,可以不戴口罩。
No masks You may not wear a mask when you are alone or in an open area.


应该戴哪种口罩?
Which kind of mask should I wear?


●对于一般公众(医务工作者或疫情相关工作人员除外),建议戴一次性医用口罩。
For the general public (except medical workers or epidemic-related workers), it is recommended to wear disposable medical masks.  

●人员密集场所的工作人员(医院、机场、火车站、地铁、地面公交、飞机、火车、超市、餐厅等)和警察、保安、快递等从业人员,以及居家隔离及与其共同生活人员,建议佩戴医用外科口罩或者符合N95/KN95及以上标准的颗粒物防护口罩。不推荐使用纸口罩、活性炭口罩、棉纱口罩和海绵口罩。

Staff in densely populated places (hospitals, airports, railway stations, subways, ground buses, planes, trains, supermarkets, and restaurants, etc.) and police, security, express delivery and other practitioners, as well as those who undergo home quarantine and their house-mates are recommended to wear medical surgical masks or wearing masks that conform N95/KN95 and above standard particulate protective masks. Paper masks, activated carbon masks, cotton masks, and sponge masks are not recommended.


如何正确使用口罩?
How to use masks correctly?


一次性医用口罩/医用外科口罩的正确使用方法如下:
The correct use of disposable medical masks/surgical masks are as follows:

  1. 鼻夹朝上,外层深色面朝外(或褶皱朝下)。
    The nose clip faces up and the outer dark side faces outward (or the fold faces down).

  2. 上下拉开褶皱,将口罩覆盖口、鼻、下颌。

    Open the fold and cover your mouth, nose and jaw with mask.

  3. 将双手指尖沿着鼻梁金属条,由中间至两边,慢慢向内按压,直至紧贴鼻梁。

    Press the metal strip from the middle to the sides of the bridge of the nose with finger tips and press inward slowly until there are no gaps between your face and the mask.

  4. 适当调整口罩,使口罩周围充分贴合面部。

    Adjust the mask appropriately until there are no gaps between your face and the mask.

标准的外科口罩分3层:外层有阻水层,可防止飞沫进入口罩;中层有过滤层;近口鼻的内层用于吸湿。
There are 3 layers of a standard surgical mask: the outer layer has a water blocking layer to prevent droplets from entering the mask; the middle layer has a filter layer; the inner layer near the mouth and nose is used for moisture absorption.


可以用带呼吸阀的口罩吗?
Can I use a mask with a breathing valve?


可以 普通人群可以,因为戴呼吸阀的口罩可以保护佩戴者。

Yes. For the general population, the answer is yes. Because wearing a mask with a breathing valve can protect the wearer.

不可以 疑似病人或确诊病人不应佩戴有呼吸阀的口罩,因为呼吸阀不能阻挡佩戴者的飞沫向环境中传播。

No. Suspected or confirmed patients should not wear masks with breathing valves because breathing valves cannot prevent wearers' droplets from spreading into the environment.


口罩可以用多久?必须用一次性的吗?
How long can a mask be used? Do I have to use a disposable one?


对于一般公众,在没有接触过患者或可疑感染者的情况下,可以根据清洁程度适度延长使用时间,酌情重复使用,但应注意专人专用,佩戴前按规程洗手,佩戴时避免接触口罩内侧。
For the general public, in the case of no contact with patients or suspected infections, the use time can be appropriately extended according to the degree of cleanliness, and reuse mask as appropriate; however, do not share mask with others, wash hands according to regulations before wearing, and avoid touching the inner side of the mask when wearing.

一旦口罩被飞沫或其他污染物污染,或者口罩变形、损坏、有异味时,应立即更换口罩。
Replace the mask immediately once it is contaminated with droplets or other pollutants, deformed, damaged, or has a strange smell.


重复使用的口罩如何保存?
How to save reused masks?


如需重复使用口罩,可将其悬挂在洁净、干燥的通风处,或者将其放置在清洁、透气的纸袋中。
To reuse the mask, hang it in a clean, dry and ventilated place, or place it in a clean and breathable paper bag.

口罩需单独存放,避免彼此接触,并标识口罩使用人员;医用标准防护口罩不能清洗,也不可使用消毒剂、加热等方法进行消毒;其他非医用口罩按说明书处理。
Masks need to be stored separately to avoid contact with each other and marked with the users; medical standard protective masks cannot be washed, nor can they be disinfected with disinfectants or heating; other non-medical masks should be handled according to instructions.


如何丢弃使用过的口罩?
How do I discard a used mask?


普通人群佩戴过的口罩,没有新型冠状病毒传播的风险,使用后装入塑料袋密封,按照生活垃圾分类的要求处理。
There is no risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV in the masks worn by the general population. After use, they shall be sealed in plastic bags and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of domestic waste classification.

疑似病人及其护理人员用过的口罩,按照医疗废物收集、处理,处理完口罩后要清洗双手。
Masks used by suspected patients and their caregivers should be collected and treated as medical waste. Wash hands after handling these masks.


孕妇、儿童如何选择口罩?
How to choose masks for pregnant women and children?


孕妇佩戴防护口罩,应注意结合自身条件,选择舒适性比较好的产品。
Pregnant women should consider their own conditions and choose more comfortable protective masks.  儿童处在生长发育阶段,其脸型小,应选择儿童防护口罩。
Children are at the stage of growth and development and their faces are small. They should select protective masks specially designed for children.

日常生活中是否需要戴手套?
Do I need to wear gloves in my daily life?


不需要  一般公众,日常生活中勤洗手就可以了。
No.  For the general public, wash hands frequently in daily life is enough.

需要  医护人员、密切接触者、乘务员等在人流密集场所工作者,应戴手套,以减少接触传播的风险。但是戴手套不能代替手卫生,还是要勤洗手。
Yes. Medical workers, close contacts, flight attendants and others working in crowded places should wear gloves to reduce the risk of contact transmission. But wearing gloves is not a substitute for hand hygiene. Wash your hands frequently.

日常生活中是否需要佩戴护目镜?
Do I need to wear goggles in my daily life?


不需要 一般生活及工作中,做好手卫生就足够了,如勤洗手,特别是不用脏手揉眼睛,不需要佩戴护目镜。
No. In daily life and work, practicing good hand hygiene is sufficient, such as washing hands frequently, especially avoiding rubbing eyes with dirty hands. It is not necessary to wear goggles.

消毒方法有哪些?
What are the disinfection methods?


根据《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第五版)》,病毒对紫外线和热敏感,56℃30分钟、乙醚、75%乙醇(酒精)、含氯消毒剂、过氧乙酸和氯仿等脂溶性溶剂均可有效灭活病毒,氯己定不能有效灭活病毒。
According to the COVID-19 Diagnosis and Treatment Program (Trial Edition 5th), the virus is sensitive to ultraviolet rays and heat. The virus can be inactivated at 56°C for 30 minutes. And fat-soluble solvents such as ether, 75% ethanol (alcohol), chlorine-containing disinfectants, peracetic acid, and chloroform can also effectively inactivate the virus. Chlorhexidine cannot effectively inactivate the virus. 


由于目前其他消毒方法对新型冠状病毒的灭活依据不足,不推荐其他消毒方法用于新型冠状病毒的消毒。
Due to the lack of evidence, other disinfection methods are not recommended for inactivation of 2019-nCoV.


居家可行的消毒方法有哪些?
What are the possible disinfection methods at home?


皮肤消毒 可选用消毒酒精擦拭或浸泡消毒。
Skin disinfection Wipe or soak the skin with disinfectant alcohol.

居家环境消毒  可用消毒酒精或含氯消毒剂擦拭物体表面。
Home environment disinfection  Wipe the surface of the objects with disinfectant alcohol or chlorine disinfectant.


需注意消毒剂的有效成分及消毒剂的安全使用方法:
Pay attention to the active ingredients and the safe use of the disinfectant:

  1. 酒精是易燃物品。应远离火源及易燃物,并且不可喷洒或大面积消毒,否则空气中乙醇浓度升高可能引起火灾。
    Alcohol is flammable. Keep away from sources of fire and flammable materials, and do not spray or sterilize a large area with alcohol, otherwise the increased concentration of ethanol in the air may cause a fire.

  2. 使用含氯消毒剂时需注意配置方法、稀释比例等,尤其应避免与其他消毒剂混用,可能产生大量有毒气体,具体用法依照商品说明书。

    When using chlorine-containing disinfectants, pay attention to the preparation method, and dilution ratio, etc. In particular, avoid mixing it with other disinfectants, which may generate a lot of toxic gases. Refer to the product manual for the specific usage.

耐热物品消毒  可采用煮沸15分钟的方法进行消毒。
Disinfection heat-resistant articles They can be sterilized by boiling for 15 minutes.

什么时候洗手?
When to wash hands?


从公共场所返回后、接触公共物品后、咳嗽或打喷嚏用手捂之后、脱口罩后、饭前便后、接触脏物后等。
After returning from a public place, touching public goods, covering mouth or nose with hands when coughing or sneezing, taking off a mask, using the toilet, touching dirty objects and before eating, etc.


用什么洗手?
What to wash with?


洗手液或肥皂加流水,或者使用含酒精成分的免洗洗手液。
Hand sanitizer or soap with running water, or alcohol-based hand rub.


如何洗手?
How do I wash my hands?


1.在流水下,淋湿双手。
Get your hands wet under running water.


2.取适量洗手液或肥皂,均匀涂抹至整个手掌、手背、手指和指缝。
Take an appropriate amount of hand sanitizer or soap and apply it evenly to the entire palm, back of the hand, fingers and finger seams.


3.认真搓双手至少15秒,具体操作如下:
Rub your hands carefully for at least 15 seconds. The specific operations are as follows:

●掌心相对,手指并拢,相互揉搓。
Palms facing each other, cross fingers and rub each other. 

●手心对手背沿指缝相互揉搓,交换进行。
Interlock fingers and rub the back of fingers.  

●掌心相对,双手交叉指缝相互揉搓。
Palms facing each other, interlace fingers and rub each other.  

●弯曲手指使指关节在另一手掌心旋转揉搓,交换进行。
Rub right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers and vice versa. 

●右手握住左手大拇指旋转揉搓,交换进行。
Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa.  

●将5个手指尖并拢放在另一手掌心旋转揉搓,交换进行。
Rotational rubbing backwards and forwards of fingertips and thumb of right hand in left palm and vice versa.


4.在流水下彻底冲净双手。
Rinse hands thoroughly under running water.


5.用干净毛巾或纸巾擦干双手。
Dry your hands with a clean towel or paper towel.

咳嗽礼仪
Respiratory etiquette


咳嗽、打喷嚏时要用胳膊肘遮挡或者用纸巾遮掩,千万不要用手捂口鼻。
Cover your mouth and nose with elbows or tissues when you cough or sneeze. Never cover your mouth and nose with your hands.


咳嗽、打喷嚏这个动作,会释放大量病毒。病毒污染手之后,如果不能及时洗手,手接触的地方也会被病毒污染,如门把手、电梯按钮、桌椅等物体表面。此时,如有人接触了这些被污染的部位,在没有及时洗手的情况下用手接触口、眼、鼻,病毒便通过污染的手传播。
A lot of viruses can be released through coughing and sneezing. If you don't wash your hands in time after the virus contaminates your hands, objects your hands touch will also be contaminated by virus, such as the surface of door handles, elevator buttons, tables and chairs. At this time, if someone touches these contaminated parts, and then touches his/her mouth, eyes, and nose with hands without washing them in time, the virus will spread through the contaminated hands.

用胳膊肘遮挡,病毒喷在衣服上,不会污染其他物体表面。因此,特别强调,要注意咳嗽礼仪。同时,不洗手不能接触自己的身体,尤其是口、眼、鼻等黏膜部位。
Covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow when you cough or sneeze and spraying the viruses on your clothes without contaminating the surface of other objects. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on the practice of respiratory etiquette. Meanwhile, do not touch your body before washing your hands, especially your mouth, eyes, and nose.

新型冠状病毒是否会粪口传播?
Can 2019-nCoV be transmitted by the fecal-oral route?


目前仅在新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者粪便中检测到病毒核酸呈阳性,但是粪便病毒核酸阳性≠粪口传播,公众不宜过度解读,更不用恐慌。目前气溶胶和消化道等传播途径尚待明确。谨慎的做法如下:
Positive virus nucleic acid has been detected only in the feces of patients. However, positive fecal viral nucleic acid ≠ fecal-oral transmission, the public should not over-interpret it, let alone feeling panic. At present, the transmission routes of aerosol and digestive tract are to be clarified. The prudent practice is as follows:


1.饭前便后规范洗手。
Wash hands before meals and after using the toilet.


2.如厕后冲水前,记得盖上马桶盖。
Remember to cover the toilet lid before flushing after using the toilet.

乘电梯时是否需要戴口罩?按按钮是否有风险?
Do I need to wear a mask when taking the lift? Is it risky to press a button?


厢式电梯中空气的流通性差,建议乘坐时佩戴口罩。电梯楼层按钮上可能残留飞沫和病毒,有接触感染的可能;按楼层按钮时,最好不直接使用手指,如果用手指,在触碰按钮后避免接触身体其他部位,出电梯后勤洗手。
The air circulation in a van lift is poor. It is recommended to wear a mask when riding. Droplets and viruses may remain on the buttons of the lift, and there is a possibility of contact infection;it is better not to use your finger to directly press the floor button; avoid touching other parts of your body after touching the buttons with your finger, and wash your hands after leaving the lift.


应减少乘坐电梯的频率,上低楼层尽量走楼梯。但是在非流行地区,传播风险低,无须过度紧张,佩戴口罩、及时洗手即可。
You should reduce the frequency of taking the lift and take the stairs as much as possible for lower floors. However, in non-endemic areas, the risk of transmission is low and there is no need to be overly nervous. Wear a mask and wash your hands in a timely manner is enough.

空调开还是不开?
Can I use the air conditioner?


中央空调有传播疾病的可能。因此在疫情期间,应停止或减少使用中央空调,必须开启空调时,应注意以下事项:
Central air-conditioning may spread diseases. Therefore, during the epidemic period, the use of central air conditioning should be stopped or reduced. When we have to turn on the air conditioning, the following should be noted:

1.要同时开排气扇。
Turn on the exhaust fan at the same time.


2.需清洗、消毒空调。即使是分体式空调,也要定期清洗。
Remember to clean and disinfect the air conditioner. Clean split-type air conditioners regularly.


3.定时开启门窗,保持室内空气流通。
Open the doors and windows regularly to maintain indoor air circulation.

宠物是否会传播新型冠状病毒?
Will pets spread 2019-nCoV?


目前没有证据显示猫、狗等宠物会感染新型冠状病毒。但与宠物接触后,用肥皂水洗手可以显著减少其他常见细菌在宠物和人类之间的传播,如大肠杆菌和沙门菌。宠物种类繁多,但目前新型冠状病毒的来源、中间宿主还不明确,不建议将不明来源的动物,特别是野生动物作为宠物。
There is no evidence that pets such as cats and dogs can be infected with There is no evidence that pets such as cats and dogs can be infected with 2019-nCoV. However, washing hands with soapy water after touching pets can significantly reduce the transmission of other common bacteria between pets and humans, such as E. coli and salmonella. There are many types of pets. But currently the source and intermediate host of 2019-nCoV are still unclear. It is not recommended to adopt animals of unknown origin, especially wild animals as pets.


宠物出门回家如何消毒?
How to disinfect pets after taken them home?


不用特殊消毒,做好日常清洁以及定期进行宠物相关检疫即可。
No special disinfection is required. Practice daily cleaning and regular pet-related quarantine is enough.


户外宠物之间可否一起玩耍?
Can pets play together outdoors?


可以。
Yes.


有疑似病例接触史的宠物是否要隔离?
Should pets with history of exposure of suspected cases be quarantined?


在疫情期间,建议隔离观察。
Quarantine observations are recommended during the outbreak.

哪些人是密切接触者?
What is the definition of close contacts?


密切接触者指与疑似病例、确诊病例有以下接触情形之一,但未采取有效防护者:
Close contacts refer to those with one of the following contacts with suspected cases and confirmed cases without taking any effective protection measures:


1.共同居住、学习、工作或其他有密切接触的人员,如果近距离工作或共用同一间房或在同一幢房屋中生活。
Living, studying, working together with suspected cases and confirmed cases, or other people who have close contact with them during close work or sharing the same room or living in the same house with them.


2.诊疗、护理、探视患者的医护人员、家属或其他有类似近距离接触的人员,在密闭环境中探视患者或停留的人员,以及同病室的其他患者及其陪护人员。
Medical staff, family members or other people who have similar close contact with patients during medical treatment, nursing, and visiting; those who have visited patients or stayed in a closed environment; other patients in the same ward and their accompanying staff.


3.乘坐同一种交通工具并有近距离接触的人员,包括在交通工具上照料护理的人员,同行人员(家人、同事、朋友等),经调查评估后发现可能近距离接触疑似病例和确诊病例的其他乘客和乘务人员。
People who are in the same transportation and have close contact with the patients, including caregivers and fellow travelers (family, colleagues, and friends, etc.), other passengers and flight attendants who may have close contact with suspected and confirmed cases after investigation and evaluation.


4.现场调查人员调查后经评估认为符合其他密切接触者定义的人员
Those who are assessed to meet the definition of other close contacts after investigation by on-site investigators


如何知道自己是否是密切接触者?
How do I know if I am a close contact?


在判定密切接触者、分析其感染发病的风险时,要综合所接触病人的临床表现、与病人的接触方式、接触时所采取的防护措施,以及暴露于病人污染的环境和物体的程度等因素,进行综合判断。
When judging someone as a close contact and analyzing his/her risk of infection, it is necessary to integrate factors such as the clinical manifestations of the contacted patient, contact ways with the patient, protective measures taken during the contact, and the degree of exposure to the patient's contaminated environment and objects before making a comprehensive judgment.


因此,密切接触者的判定应交给专业人员进行,对大众而言,如实上报并提供相关信息即可。除了患者亲友、同事以外,最常见的成为密切接触者的可能为乘坐同一班次交通工具的人员。因此要留意自己的航班号、高铁车次信息,注意社会公示的患者同乘交通工具信息,如果是同乘者,需上报并居家隔离。

Therefore, the judgment of close contacts should be left to professionals. For the general public, it is only necessary to report and provide relevant information. Apart from relatives, friends and colleagues of patients, the most common close contacts may be those who take the same transport. Therefore, you should pay attention to your flight number and high-speed rail trip information as well as the public transportation information of patients. If you take the same public transport with the patients, you are required to report it and practice home quarantine.


密切接触者需要注意什么?
What do close contacts need to pay attention to?


上报并居家隔离。
Report it and practice home quarantine.


不同场景的防控新型冠状病毒方案

2019-nCoV prevention and control solutions in different scenarios


在家如何防控新型冠状病毒?
How to prevent and control 2019-nCoV at home?


规律休息,适量运动,保障睡眠。
Take regular breaks, exercise regularly and ensure sleep quality.  


保持良好的个人卫生习惯:勤洗手,不用脏手触摸眼睛、鼻或口;咳嗽或打喷嚏时用纸巾掩住口鼻。
Maintain good personal hygiene habits: Wash your hands frequently, do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth with dirty hands; cover your mouth and nose with tissue paper when you cough or sneeze. 


家庭成员不共用毛巾,保持家居清洁。

Do not share towels among family members and keep home environment clean.  


居室多通风、换气并保持整洁卫生。
Make sure the rooms are ventilated and kept clean and hygienic.  


冲厕所马桶时应盖上马桶盖。
Cover the toilet when flushing it.  


家庭备置体温计、一次性医用口罩、医用外科口罩或N95/KN95口罩、家用消毒用品等。
Prepare a thermometer, disposable medical masks, surgical masks or N95 / KN95 masks, household disinfection supplies, etc. at home.  


尽量减少外出活动。
Minimize outdoor activities.


尽可能避免与有呼吸道疾病症状(如发热、咳嗽或打喷嚏等)的人员密切接触。
Avoid close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as fever, cough or sneezing) as much as possible.  


尽量避免各类聚会,避免到人多拥挤或空间密闭的场所。
Avoid all kinds of gatherings, and avoid going to crowded or confined spaces. 


避免接触野生动物和家禽家畜。

Avoid contact with wild animals and poultry.  


密切关注发热、咳嗽等症状,出现此类症状请及时就医。
Pay close attention to symptoms such as fever and cough. In case of these symptoms, seeking medical care.


吃感冒冲剂、板蓝根或采用醋熏能否预防新型冠状病毒?
Does it work to prevent 2019-nCoV by taking cold-fever-treating infusion, radix isatidis granule, or adopting vinegar fumigation?


不能!感冒冲剂、板蓝根对新型冠状病毒无效,且醋熏不是对新型冠状病毒有效的消除方法。
No! Cold-fever-treating infusion and radix isatidis granule are not effective against 2019-nCoV, and vinegar fumigation is not an effective method to eliminate 2019-nCoV.


饮食方面的注意事项有哪些?
What are the dietary considerations?


不要食用已经患病的动物及其制品。
Do not eat sick animals or their products. 


要从正规渠道购买冰鲜禽肉,食用蛋、奶、禽肉时要充分煮熟。
Buy chilled poultry from regular channels and eat fully cooked eggs, milk, and poultry. 


处理生食和熟食的切菜板及刀具要分开;处理生食和熟食之间要洗手。
Separate the cutting boards and knives for raw food and cooked food; wash hands between preparing raw food and cooked food.  


即使在发生疫情的地区,如果肉食在食品制备过程中经过彻底烹饪和妥善处理,也可安全食用。
Even in outbreak areas, meat is safe to eat if it is thoroughly cooked and properly handled during food preparation. 


注意饮食规律,营养均衡。
Pay attention to a balanced and nutritious diet.

超市买回的东西需要消毒吗?
Do I need to disinfect the stuff bought from supermarket? 


不需要,勤洗手就可以了。
No, just wash your hands frequently.


手触摸到被新型冠状病毒污染的物体,再去接触眼、口、鼻,可能造成间接接触传播。因为新型冠状病毒在体外存活的时间有限,同时在非流行地区,超市里的物品被患者口沫污染的概率很低,无需过度紧张。
Touching objects contaminated by 2019-nCoV with your hands, and then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose with hands may cause indirect contact transmission. Since 2019-nCoV has a limited survival time in vitro, and in non-endemic areas, the probability of contamination of items in the supermarket by droplets from the patient's mouth is very low, there is no need to be overly nervous.


外卖安全吗?是否需要消毒?
Is takeout safe to eat? Do I have to disinfect takeout?


外卖总体是安全的,但是需要选择正规的店家,这样才能保证食用的肉食、生鲜是经过检疫的,并且制作加工过程是合规的。
Takeout is generally safe. But you need to choose formal stores to ensure that the meat and fresh food are quarantined and that the preparation and processing processes are in compliance.


如果担心外卖方式和快递员带来的接触和飞沫传播风险,可以让外卖人员将食物放在门口自行取用,打开包装后,先洗手再食用。
If you are concerned about the risk of contact and droplet transmission caused in the delivery and by the take-away rider, you can ask him/her to drop the food at the door and fetch it by yourself. After opening the package, wash your hands before enjoying the meal.

如何处理武汉或其他地区发来的快递?
How to handle the express delivery from Wuhan or other regions?


新型冠状病毒离开人体单独存活的时间有限,武汉地区的快递发到你手中,物体表面残留新型冠状病毒的可能性相对较低,可以正常收取。若实在担心快递表面被病毒污染,可打开包装并弃去,然后及时洗手,尤其在触摸自己的口、鼻或眼睛前注意洗手。
2019-nCoV has very limited survival time in vitro. The possibility of 2019-nCoV remaining on the surface of the object is relatively low after the express from Wuhan area is delivered to your place, and thereby can be accepted normally. If you are really worried about virus contamination on the surface of the express delivery, you can open the package and discard it, then wash your hands in time, especially before touching your mouth, nose or eyes.


洗热水澡或汗蒸可帮助杀死新型冠状病毒吗?
Can a hot bath or sauna help kill 2019-nCoV?


新型冠状病毒在56℃环境中30分钟会死亡。但是一般洗澡或汗蒸达不到这个温度和持续时间,而且水温过高、洗澡时间过长可能会使人体感到不适,出现头晕眼花、心跳加快等现象,严重的还会出现虚脱、晕倒。不过勤洗澡可以减少感染的风险。
2019-nCoV will die for 30 minutes at 56°C. But generally the temperature and duration cannot be reached by taking a bath or sauna. Moreover, if the temperature of the water is too high and the bath time is too long, one may feel uncomfortable, such as experiencing dizziness, rapid heartbeat, etc. In severe cases, one may collapse or faint. However, showering frequently can reduce the risk of infection.


居家开空调安全吗?
Is it safe to turn on the air conditioner at home?


居家的分体式空调不会造成病毒在不同房间中流动。但使用时仍应定时开窗通风,保证室内空气流通,并定期清洗空调滤网。
The split-type air conditioner at home does not cause the viruses to flow in different rooms. However, the window should be opened regularly for ventilation to ensure the indoor air circulation, and the filter of the air conditioner should be cleaned regularly.

楼梯扶手、小区器械等公共设施上会有新型冠状病毒吗?
Are there 2019-nCoV on public facilities such as stair handrails and community equipment?


病毒可能附着于这些公共设施表面,因此应避免触碰公共设施,避免用脏手触摸口鼻、揉眼睛等。一旦触碰,尽快洗手。
Viruses may attach to the surface of these public facilities, so you should avoid touching public facilities, avoid touching your nose and mouth, and rubbing your eyes with dirty hands, etc. Wash hands immediately after you touch these public facilities.


小区管理者应该加强公共设施的清洁、消毒工作。
Community managers should strengthen the cleaning and disinfection of public facilities.

乘电梯有感染的风险吗?
Is there a risk of infection by taking the lift?


详见“电梯”相关内容。
See "Lift"  for details.

小区管理者应该加强电梯的清洁、消毒工作。
Community managers should strengthen the cleaning and disinfection of lifts.


确诊患者使用过的垃圾,会传染吗?
Is the rubbish used by confirmed patients contagious?


可能性非常小。建议勤洗手,不碰可疑的污染物,丢垃圾时注意防护,必要时可以戴一次性手套。
The possibility is very small. It is recommended to wash hands frequently, do not touch suspicious contaminants, take protection measures when throwing garbage, and wear disposable gloves if necessary.

出行的注意事项有哪些?
What are the precautions for traveling?


在公共场所应佩戴口罩,特别是在公共交通工具上、在人流密集的公共场所。
Wear masks in public places, especially on public transport and in crowded public places.  


条件允许的情况下,可选择步行、骑自行车或自驾出行。
You may choose walking, cycling or driving if conditions permit.  


避免接触有发热、咳嗽等症状的人,如果遇到,需保持1米以上距离。
Avoid contact with people who have fever, cough and other symptoms. Keep a distance of more than 1 meter if you have to.  


咳嗽、打喷嚏时用纸巾或屈肘将口鼻完全遮住。
Cover your mouth and nose completely with a tissue or bent elbow when you cough or sneeze.


减少接触公共场所的公共物品。
Minimize touching public goods in public places.  


避免用脏手触摸口鼻、揉眼睛等。
Avoid touching your nose and mouth, and rubbing eyes with dirty hands.  


勤洗手,可以自备含消毒酒精的免洗洗手液、消毒湿巾等产品。
Wash your hands frequently, and you can prepare alcohol-based hand rub, disinfectant wipes, and other products by yourself.  


疫情期间应尽量避免参加各类聚会。
Avoid attending various parties during the epidemic.


外出回家需要注意什么?
What do I need to pay attention to when arriving home?


正常脱外衣→把外衣挂在门口(或通风处)→摘口罩→洗手→把睡前洗澡改成进门洗澡。如果做到这些,感染新型冠状病毒的概率就会很低。
Take off your coat as usual → hang your coat at the door (or ventilated place) → remove your mask → wash your hands → take a shower after arrive home rather than before sleep. If you follow the above tips, the probability of infection with 2019-nCoV will be very low.


建议把外衣挂在门口特定的地方,不与干净的衣物混放。如未与患者接触,外套表面残留病毒污染物的可能性小。但外套上会携带大量灰尘,不建议带进卧室。
It is advisable to hang the outerwear in a specific place at the door, and do not put it together with clean clothes. There is little chance of virus remaining on the surface of the outerwear if there is no contact with patients. However, there will be a large amount of dust on the surface of the outerwear, thus it is not recommended to take it into the bedroom.


户外健身时如何防护?
What preventive measures to take when exercising outdoors?


疫情期间,应尽量避免去密闭人多空间,包括健身房。
Avoid going to confined and crowded spaces during the outbreak, including gyms.


户外活动也应避免去人流密集场所。部分健身活动可调整在家中进行,如健身操、瑜伽等。
Avoid going to crowded places for outdoor activities. Take some fitness activities at home, such as aerobics and yoga.

乘坐市内公共交通工具时需要注意什么?
What do I need to pay attention to when using public transport in the city?


特别注意要佩戴口罩,触摸扶手等公共场所物品后应注意洗手。

Pay special attention to wearing a mask, and washing hands after touching items in public place such as handrails.


私家车多人乘坐时如何防护?
What preventive measures to take when sharing a private car with others?


车上人员均需佩戴口罩,减少交谈,注意咳嗽或打喷嚏礼仪,并尽可能开窗通风。
All passengers should wear masks, reduce communication, pay attention to respiratory etiquette, and open windows as much as possible for ventilation.


如果同乘者为疑似患者,之后应对车内进行彻底消毒。
If a passenger is found to be a suspected patient, the car should be thoroughly disinfected afterwards.


乘高铁、飞机时需要注意什么?
What should I pay attention to when traveling by high-speed rail and plane?


进出站时一定要配合工作人员体温测量;减少进食,尽量避免脱口罩;避免双手频繁接触口、鼻、眼睛;打喷嚏或咳嗽时,用纸巾或手肘衣服遮住口鼻;途中尽量与他人保持安全间距,密切留意周围旅客的健康状况;如果发现异常,在条件允许的情况下尽量换座位,并主动上报工作人员;尽可能远离人群走动频繁的过道,减少在车厢或机舱内来回走动;避免使用公共饮水机,尽量自备或购买瓶装水。

When entering or exiting the station, be sure to cooperate with staff for temperature measurement; eat less and avoid taking off masks as much as possible; avoid touching mouth, nose, and eyes with your hands frequently; cover your mouth and nose with tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing; keep a safe distance with others and pay close attention to the health condition of nearby passengers. If an abnormal condition is found, try to change the seat if possible and report it to the staff; try to stay away from crowded aisles as much as possible, and avoid walking around in the carriage or cabin; avoid using public water dispensers and try to bring your own water or buy bottled water.


留意自己的航班号、高铁车次信息,注意社会公示的患者同乘交通工具信息,如果是同乘者,需上报并居家隔离。
Pay attention to your flight number and high-speed rail trip information as well as the public transportation information of patients. If you take the same public transport with the patients, you are required to report it and practice home quarantine.

非疾病流行地区人员返岗,能不能直接上岗?需要注意什么?
Are those who return from non-endemic areas allowed to resume work immediately? What are the precautions? 


如果没有接触过患者,也没有相关症状,可以按照国家与企业规定,按时返岗。
If you have no contact history with patients or relevant symptoms, you may return to work on time in accordance with national and enterprise regulations.  


如果接触过患者或出现相关症状,请上报并暂时居家隔离,必要时医院就诊。据实际情况及专业指导决定是否上岗。
If you have come into contact with patients or have relevant symptoms, please report it and practice home quarantine temporarily. If necessary, seek medical care in a hospital. Whether to resume work will be determined according to the actual situation and professional guidance.


2周内有疾病流行地区(如武汉等)居住或旅行史人员如何返岗?
How do people who have lived or traveled in an epidemic area (such as Wuhan) within 2 weeks return to work?


尽快到所在社区或村委会进行登记,减少外出活动,尤其是避免到人员密集的公共场所活动。
Register with your community or village committee as soon as possible, reduce outing activities, especially avoid going to crowded public places.  


从离开疾病流行地区的时间开始,进行自我健康状况监测14天。每天监测体温2次,关注有无咳嗽、咳痰、胸闷、气急等呼吸道症状,条件允许时,尽量单独居住或居住在通风良好的单人房间,并减少与家人密切接触。
Perform self-health monitoring for 14 days from the day leaving the endemic area. Monitor body temperature twice a day, pay attention to respiratory symptoms such as cough, sputum, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Whenever possible, live alone or in a well-ventilated single room and reduce close contact with family members.


若出现可疑症状(包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛、胸闷、呼吸困难、轻度纳差、乏力、精神稍差、恶心呕吐、腹泻、头痛、心慌、结膜炎、轻度四肢或腰背部肌肉酸痛等),应根据病情及时就诊。
If there are suspicious symptoms (including fever, cough, sore throat, chest tightness, dyspnea, poor appetite, fatigue, weak spirits, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild muscle soreness at limbs or lower back, etc ), seek medical care timely according to the state of illness.

乘电梯是否有风险?
Is there a risk of infection by taking the lift?


详见“电梯”相关内容。
See "Lift" for details.


文件传递时应该如何做?
How to deliver documents?


文件传递交接时佩戴口罩,接触后建议洗手。
Wear a mask when handing over documents, and wash your hands after touching.


手机、座机、电脑键盘是否需要消毒?
Is it necessary to disinfect mobile phones, landlines, and computer keyboards?


办公室的办公设备均应定期消毒。手机、座机、电脑键盘等可用消毒酒精棉球擦拭消毒。
Office equipment should be disinfected regularly. Wipe the surface of mobile phones, landlines, and computer keyboards, etc. with a sanitized alcohol cotton ball.


多人一间办公室如何防护?
What preventive measures to take in a multi-person office? 


确保工作环境清洁卫生,保持室内空气流通。
Ensure that the work environment is clean and hygienic, and maintain indoor air circulation.  


多人办公室属于公共空间,如果不确定是否存在新型冠状病毒感染的风险,建议佩戴口罩。
A multi-person office is a public space, and it is recommended to wear a mask if you are not sure whether there is a risk of 2019-nCoV infection.  


疫情期间停止或减少使用中央空调,必须开空调时,要同时开排气扇。要定期清洗空调。
Stop or reduce the use of central air conditioning. Turn on the exhaust fan when the air conditioner has to be used. Clean the air conditioner regularly.  


每天定时开启门窗,进行通风换气。
Open the windows and doors regularly every day for ventilation. 


定期用消毒液为办公室设备、门把手等进行消毒。
Disinfect office equipment, and door handles, etc. with disinfectant regularly. 


注意手卫生。各类场所应配备洗手龙头、洗手液、抹手纸或干手机,养成勤洗手的好习惯。
Pay attention to hand hygiene.  All kinds of places should be equipped with hand-washing faucets, hand-washing liquid, paper towels or hand dryers. Develop a good habit of washing hands frequently. 


如果有人出现发热、乏力、干咳及胸闷等症状,其应暂时不要上班,并根据情况及时就医。
Take a rest from work temporarily and seek medical treatment in a timely manner according to the situation if you develop symptoms such as fever, fatigue, dry cough and chest tightness.

参加会议需要佩戴口罩吗?
Do I need to wear a mask during the meeting?


建议始终佩戴口罩。
It is recommended to wear a mask throughout the meeting. 


谈话保持适度距离。
Keep a moderate distance in conversation. 


多开窗通风。
Keep the windows open for ventilation. 


减少集中开会次数。
Reduce the times of meetings. 


控制会议时间。
Control meeting time.

办公场所可以开中央空调吗?如果开的话是否需要消毒?
Is it safe to turn on the central air-conditioning in the office? Is disinfection of central air conditioning necessary if it is turned on?


应开启门窗,保持室内空气流通。
Keep the doors and windows open to maintain indoor air circulation. 


停止或减少使用中央空调,必须开空调时,要同时开排气扇。
Stop or reduce the use of central air conditioning. Turn on the exhaust fan when the air conditioner has to be used. 


应定期清洗消毒空调。
Air conditioners should be cleaned and disinfected regularly.

公务出行、接待来访人员需要注意什么?
What are the precautions when traveling on business or receiving visitors?


所有人员均应佩戴口罩。
All personnel should wear masks.


对来访者进行体温检测,并明确其有无武汉等其他疫区驻留史以及有无与确诊或疑似病例接触史,有无发热、咳嗽、呼吸不畅等症状。
Measure the temperature of the visitors, and clarify whether there is a history of residence in epidemic areas such as Wuhan, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected cases, and symptoms of fever, cough, and poor breathing, etc. 


对接待车辆等用消毒酒精、含氯消毒剂或含过氧乙酸的消毒剂等消毒。
Disinfect the reception vehicles with disinfecting alcohol, chlorine-containing disinfectant or peroxyacetic acid-containing disinfectant.

去购物场所(超市、菜场)需要如何防范?
What precautions should be taken when going shopping (in supermarkets, vegetable markets)?


详见“出行”相关内容。勿食野味!
See "Travel" for details. Do not eat wild animals!

避免接触生肉,避免接触市场里的流浪动物、垃圾、废水等;一旦接触,尽快洗手。
Avoid contact with raw meat, stray animals, garbage, and waste water, etc. in the market; wash hands as soon as you touch them.


去饭店需要如何防范?
What precautions should be taken when going to the restaurant?


避免聚餐,尽量单人单桌吃饭。如果不能单人单桌吃饭,应采用分餐制或使用公筷。
Avoid dining together and dine alone at a single table as far as possible. If dining alone at a single table is not permitted, individual dining system and public chopsticks should be adopted.

如果出现疑似症状,什么时候需要就医?
In case of suspected symptoms, when do I need to see a doctor? 


首先,如果属于需要居家隔离的情况(详见“居家隔离”相关内容),一旦出现疑似症状,请立即上报并就医。

 First of all, if you are required to practice home quarantine (see "Home quarantine" for details), report it and seek medical advice immediately as there is any symptom. 


如果不需要居家隔离,建议按照以下流程先自我评估。
If home quarantine is not required, it is recommended to follow the procedure below to conduct self-assessment first.

  1. 体温不超过38℃,并且没有明显的气短、憋喘等症状。
    The body temperature does not exceed 38°C, and there are no obvious symptoms such as shortness of breath or wheezing.  

  2. 年龄在60岁以下、5岁以上。
    Under 60 and over 5 years old.  

  3. 不属于孕妇、慢性病患者(如肺部疾病、心血管疾病、慢性肾脏病、免疫性疾病等)或肥胖者。
    Does not fall into pregnant women, patients with chronic diseases (such as lung disease, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, immune disease, etc.) or obese people.

  4. 如果同时符合以上情况,建议先在家休息和观察。在家期间,多喝水,可以服用一些减轻症状的感冒药。

    If the above conditions are all met at the same time, it is recommended to rest and observe at home first. Drink plenty of water at home, and take some anti-cold drugs to reduce your symptoms.

同时,采取戴口罩、勤洗手、房间勤通风等措施,做好个人和家人的防护。
Meanwhile, take measures such as wearing a mask, washing hands frequently and ventilating the room regularly to protect yourself and family members.

如果有以下情况,建议及时就诊。
In the following cases, it is recommended to seek medical treatment in a timely manner.

  1. 在家观察休息1~2天后,病情无好转。
    No improvement in the condition after observation at home for 1~2 days.  

  2. 近期近距离接触过有发热、咳嗽症状的患者,或去过人群密集的场所,如医院、超市、农贸市场,或有野生动物接触史。
    Have contacts with patients with fever or cough recently, or have visited crowded places such as hospitals, supermarkets, farmers' markets, or have a history of wildlife exposure.  

  3. 老年人、孕妇、肥胖者,以及有慢性肺部疾病、心血管疾病、肝肾等脏器基础疾病和免疫功能低下的人员。
    Elderly people, pregnant women, obese people, and people with chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases, and low immune function.

就诊有哪些注意事项?
What are the precautions for seeing a doctor?


前往/返回医院途中
On the way to / from the hospital


佩戴口罩,注意咳嗽礼仪,咳嗽、打喷嚏时不要用手捂口鼻,要用纸巾或肘部遮挡。
Wear a mask, practice respiratory etiquette, cover your nose and mouth with paper towel or elbow rather than hands when coughing or sneezing.  


尽量避免乘坐地铁、公共汽车等公共交通工具,避免前往人群密集场所。
Avoid taking public transportation such as subways and buses, and avoid going to crowded places.  


运营人员应对交通工具进行消毒。
Operators should disinfect vehicles.  


就诊时
When seeing a doctor


主动告诉医生自己在相关疾病流行地区的居住史和旅行史,发病前曾经接触的疑似或确诊患者,以及发病后曾接触的人群,配合医生开展相关调查。
Tell the doctor about your living and travel history in the epidemic area of the relevant disease, suspected or confirmed cases you have contacted with before the onset of the disease, and people you have contacted with after the onset of the disease, and cooperate with the doctor to carry out relevant investigations.  


如怀疑为新型冠状病毒感染,请直接至发热门诊就诊,减少在医院其他区域活动。
If you are suspected with 2019-nCoV infection, go directly to a fever clinic and minimize activities in other areas of the hospital.  


如果因其他原因必须就医者,请勿穿行于发热门诊、急诊等区域,避免接触有发热、咳嗽等症状的患者,如果遇到,尽量保持1米以上距离。
If you have to seek medical treatment for other reasons, please do not walk through areas such as fever clinic or emergency department, avoid contact with patients with fever, cough and other symptoms; keep a distance of more than 1 meter if encountered with them.  


就诊结束,不要在外逗留,尽早回家。
After the consultation, do not stay outside long and go home as soon as possible.

孕妇可以正常产检吗?
Can pregnant women have normal checkups?


做好防护后可以到医院进行正常产检。
Pregnant women are allowed to go to the hospital for normal checkups as long as protective measures a taken.

如果出现发热、咳嗽、胸闷等症状,及时告知产检医生。
Tell your obstetrician in time in case of fever, cough, or chest tightness, etc.


儿童在疫情期间可以接种疫苗吗?
Can children be vaccinated during the outbreak?


家长可以根据当地疫情情况,致电接种点或疾控中心,询问是否可以接种。部分疫苗可以适当延后接种。建议以各地接种点和疾控中心发布的消息为准。
Based on local epidemic situation, parents can call vaccination site or Center for Disease Control and ask if vaccination is possible. Some vaccinations can be postponed appropriately. It is recommended that information released by local vaccination sites and Center for Disease Control and Prevention shall prevail.


END




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